Factors Influencing Self-efficacy in Environmental Education among Malaysian Secondary School Teachers

By Masitah Hj. Mohammad Yusof, Azizi Hj. Muda, Ahmad Makmom Hj. Abdullah, Bahaman Abu Samah, Ramli Basri, Noriati A. Rashid and Mohamed Khaidir Alias.

Published by The Sustainability Collection

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The aim of this study was to identify the antecedents of teachers’ self-efficacy in Environmental Education. The factors were teachers’ knowledge, attitudes and awareness towards environment, teachers’ perception towards school principals’ instructional leadership practices, teachers’ background factor and school location factor. This study involved 300 teachers from 30 Malaysian Daily Secondary School from the states of Perlis representing Northern Zone, states of Selangor representing Central Zone, states of Pahang representing Eastern Zone, states of Malacca representing Southern Zone and states of Sarawak representing East Malaysia. Nevertheless, the analyses of the study were based on 263 sets (87.7%) of completed questionnaires from 283 questionnaires collected. Descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation, frequency and percentage) and inferential statistics (t-test, one-way ANOVA, correlation Pearson r and multiple linear regressions) were utilized to analyze and present the findings. The findings showed that level of teachers self-efficacy in Environmental Education were moderate (M=3.53, SD=.30), teachers’ perception towards school principals’ instructional leadership practices (M=3.36, SD=.77), teachers’ knowledge about Environmental Education and Environmental Issues (%M= 57.05, SD=9.74) and teachers’ awareness towards environment (M=3.60, SD=.58) were also moderate. Yet, the results reported that teachers’ attitudes toward environment was good and positive (M=4.22, SD=.42). The findings also showed that there is a significant and positive relationship between teachers’ self-efficacy with teachers’ academic qualifications (r=.148, p=.017), teachers’ attitudes towards environment (r=.440, p=.000), teachers’ awareness towards environment (r=.462, p=.000) and teachers’ perception towards school principals’ instructional leadership for all the three dimension that is Dimensional of Defining the School and the Environmental Goal (r=.185, p=.003), Dimensional of Instructional Management Programs and Environmental Programs (r=.150, p=.015) and Dimensional of Climate Nurturing Teaching and Learning of Environmental Education (r=.277, p=.000). The findings showed that the factors influence teachers’ self-efficacy were teachers’ awareness towards environment (Beta=.323, p=.000), teachers’ perception towards school principals’ instructional leadership for Dimensional of Climate Nurturing Teaching and Learning Environmental Education (Beta=.298, p=.001), teachers’ attitudes towards environment (Beta=.234, p=.000), teachers’ perception towards school principals’ instructional leadership for Dimensional of Instructional Management Programs and Environmental Programs (Beta=-.219, p=.012), teachers’ age (Beta=- .191, p=.000) and teachers’ academic qualification (dummy variable 1=Masters) (Beta=.129, p=.014).These factors explained 34.4% variance of teacher’s self-efficacy in Environmental Education. According to the findings, several suggestions were suggested to Malaysian school, ministry and researchers in future.

Keywords: Environmental Education, Teachers’ Self-efficacy, Knowledge, Attitudes, Awareness, Instructional Leadership

The International Journal of Environmental, Cultural, Economic and Social Sustainability, Volume 7, Issue 1, pp.81-102. Article: Print (Spiral Bound). Article: Electronic (PDF File; 692.646KB).

Masitah Hj. Mohammad Yusof

Lecturer (MTTI) and PhD Student (UPM), Department of Social Studies (MTTI), Department of Environmental Management (UPM), University Putra Malaysia, Malaysia

Masitah Hj.Mohammad Yusof is a doctoral candidate in Environmental Education at the Faculty of Environmental Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia. She graduated with a Bachelor of Art in Geography and History from University of Malaya and Masters Science of Environment in Environmental Education from Universiti Putra Malaysia. She completed her Diploma in Education (Geography and History) from University of Malaya. She has 12 years experience as a Geography teacher, Head of Geography Panel and Geography examiner for Malaysia Certificate of Education. She is currently lecturer at the Institute of Teacher Education, Ipoh Campus, Ministry of Education Malaysia. Her interest is in teaching teachers to be trainers and conduct Environmental Education camps for teachers. She has been one of the panels who develop the syllabus and module for Diploma in Geography Education program under Teachers Education Division, Ministry of Education Malaysia and also one of the panels who develop curriculum for Geography and Environmental Education subject for Form Four and Form Five under Curriculum Development Division, Ministry of Education Malaysia.

Prof. Dr. Azizi Hj. Muda

Sultan Idris Education University, Malaysia

Dean, Department of Geography and Environment, Faculty of Human Sciences, Sultan Idris Education University, 35900 Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia.

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ahmad Makmom Hj. Abdullah

Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia

Deputy Dean, Academic and Student Affairs, Faculty of Environmental Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. BSc(Hons)(Ecology) (Universiti Malaya), MSc(Planning) (Universiti Sains Malaysia), PhD (Universiti Putra Malaysia). Specialization: Ecophysiology, Landfill gas monitoring and modelling.

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Bahaman Abu Samah

Associate Professor, Faculty of Educational Studies, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Deputy Director, Institute for Social Science Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. Currently his teaching focuses in statistics and computer application in Human Resource Development. His involvement with UPM started in 1975 in which he pursued his Diploma in Agriculture and graduated in 1978. In the same year he continued his study at Louisiana State University, USA and obtained his BS Crop Science (1980) and MS Extension Education (1981). Dr Bahaman received his Ph.D. in Agricultural Education from Iowa State University (1992). He was promoted to Associate Professor in 2000. Currently Dr Bahaman serves as Deputy Director at Institute for Social Science Studies (IPSAS). He has been actively involved in providing training in data analysis, statistics and SPSS (one of the most popular statistical software). In addition, he is also actively involved in research and consultancy activities in areas of community development, human resource development and ICT usage. In 2005 he was awarded the Vice Chancellor Fellowship for teaching.

Dr. Ramli Basri

Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia

Senior Lecturer, Department of Foundations of Education, Faculty of Educational Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. He did his A Levels at Exeter College, UK, received his first degree from Hatfield Polytechnic, University of Hertfordshire, UK, Masters at Stanford University, US and Ph. D from National University of Malaysia. He has a vast experience in education, having served the Ministry of Education (MOE) for 21 years, both as a teacher and later as an administrator. He started his career as a chemistry teacher at Sekolah Tun Fatimah, Johor Bahru (1986 – 1992) and at Sekolah Alam Shah, Kuala Lumpur (1993). He later served as Assistant Director and later Unit Head for Policy Analysis at the Education Policy Planning and Research Division (EPRD), MOE (1993 – 2007). In his 14 year service at the MOE, Dr. Ramli Bin Basri has been involved as a researcher for a number of studies and as a drafter for various educational laws, policy and programs as well as their implementation guidelines. He also served as the secretariat or a committee member to various macro education policy research, formulation, implementation and evaluation, and has developed expertise in areas of national education policy, administration and law.

Dr. Noriati A. Rashid

Malaysia

Director, Academic Development Centre, Institute of Teachers Education, Ministry of Education, Cyberjaya, Malaysia.

Mohamed Khaidir Alias

Malaysia

Senior Officer, English Language Teaching Centre, Ministry of Education, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

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