Increasing population growth in areas susceptible to experiencing natural hazard (e.g., earthquake, tsunami) consequences and growing vulnerability from climate-related (e.g., storm, wildfire) hazards has increased the risk faced by many contemporary communities. Recognition that these hazards are a natural part of the environment whose occurrence cannot be stopped means that one dimension of a sustainable society is the capacity of it and its citizens to co-exist with hazards. In this context, an important aspect of this sustainability involves developing the potential of people to be resilient and able to adapt to hazard consequences. This paper discusses issues associated with defining and assessing disaster resilience. It presents a definition of resilience and outlines a model predicting resilience that integrate person (outcome expectancy, critical awareness), community (community participation, collective efficacy, sense of place, sense of community) and societal (empowerment, trust) level factors. Comparison of data address community readiness for earthquake, volcanic, wildfire and tsunami hazards illustrates the all-hazards applicability of the model. The cross-cultural validity of the model is discussed using data from testing the predictive utility of the model in communities in Australia, New Zealand, Thailand, Japan and the USA. The implication of the model for developing resilience is discussed.
|Keywords:||Sustainability, Disaster Resilience, All-Hazards, Cross-Cultural|
Professor, School of Psychology, University of Tasmania, Launceston, Tasmania, Australia
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