Towards a Perpetual Congruence Theory for Sustainability of International Business: A Conceptual Framework

By Keson Loke.

Published by The Sustainability Collection

Format Price
Article: Print $US10.00
Article: Electronic $US5.00

This concept paper presents a theoretical framework for longer-term sustainability of cross-border business activities in the international arena (international business). Preliminary literature review indicates that this is a ‘green field’ area with some seminal prior research work but nonetheless, still offering much room for further theory building to fill the current ‘knowledge gap’. In this regard, the conceptual framework put forth in this short discourse is founded on an ontological perspective – focusing on the dynamic, twin dimensions of ‘temporality’ and ‘spatiality’ – and so named by this author as the ‘Perpetual Congruence Theory’ (PCT) for sustainability of international business. The principal concepts proposed in respect of the ‘Perpetual Congruence Theory’ are then drawn together and presented diagrammatically as a concise, working model not only to lay the groundwork for future research but also to serve as useful guide for practitioners in this field.

Keywords: Sustainability, International Business, Perpetual Congruence Theory, Temporality, Spatiality

The International Journal of Environmental, Cultural, Economic and Social Sustainability, Volume 5, Issue 1, pp.1-14. Article: Print (Spiral Bound). Article: Electronic (PDF File; 1.227MB).

Dr. Keson Loke

Lecturer, School of Organisation and Management, Australian School of Business, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia

Keson is presently a Lecturer in International Business at the School of Organisation and Management, Australian School of Business, University of New South Wales, Australia. He obtained his PhD degree in Economics, with a focus on International Business, at the Discipline of International Business, The University of Sydney, Australia, in 2006. The thesis for his PhD was entitled International Divestment as an Emergent Strategy: Australian Managerial Attitudes and Influential Factors. Keson also holds a Master of Business Administration degree (1996) and a Bachelor of Accountancy (Honours) degree (1984), both from the National University of Singapore, Singapore. He is a Certified Public Accountant, Singapore. Further academic honours include a sponsorship from Singapore Airlines for MBA study (1993-1996), an undergraduate scholarship from the National University of Singapore (1982-1983), and the Public Service Commission Study Loan, Singapore (1981-1984). He is a member of Beta Gamma Sigma – the International Honor Society, the Academy of International Business, the Academy of Management, and the Australia and New Zealand International Business Academy. In November 2006, Keson presented and published a fully refereed paper entitled Australian MNEs: Key Perspectives on International Divestment at the Australia and New Zealand International Business Academy 2006 Conference in Wellington, New Zealand as well as other refereed papers. His current research interests include: firm internationalisation theory, foreign direct investment, international divestment, corporate governance and international business, and international business strategy. He has taught at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels in subjects including Global Business Environment, Managing Across Cultures, International Business and Multinational Enterprises, Asia Pacific Business, and Global Business and Multinational Enterprise. Prior to his academic career, Keson was at Singapore Airlines Limited, Singapore, from 1984 to 2002, where he worked on international business projects, international corporate finance, international money market and foreign exchange transactions, aircraft acquisition and leasing, cross-border aircraft sales and leasebacks, and corporate strategy.


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