Environmental Control Over the Distribution of Salt Marsh Foraminiferan Assemblages at Kapar Mangrove Ecosystem, West Peninsular Malaysia

By Mohd-Lokman Husain, Satyanarayana Behara, Razarudin Ibrahim and Sulong Ibrahim.

Published by The Sustainability Collection

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This study reports on the availability, variability and distribution of benthic foraminifera in relation to sediment characteristics at Kapar mangroves in Selangor district on the west coast of peninsular Malaysia. Altogether, 54 sediment samples were examined along three transects from marsh edge to the back mangroves, and 20 marsh foraminiferal species (11 families and 18 genera) were identified. The surface sediments were predominantly of sandy-silt nature with high silt (51%) composition followed by sand (36%) and clay (13%) in the order. Based on the faunal abundance (root-transformed data), two species’ groupings/associations (Bray-Curtis similarity, 30%) (PRIMER v.5) were recognized at Kapar. Group-1 was represented by marine/calcareous species such as Ammonia beccarii (343 ± 526 ind 10cm-3), Bucella frigida (896 ± 362 ind 10cm-3), and Haynesina depressula (224 ± 23 ind 10cm-3), while Group-2 composed of brackish water/agglutinated foraminifera dominated by Ammotium salsum (406 ± 477 ind 10cm-3; mean ± 1SD), A. fragile (379 ± 469 ind 10cm-3), and Miliammina fusca (268 ± 273 ind 10cm-3). Group-1 species were confined to the nearshore zone indicating their preference to those high salinity (30 psu) regimes, whereas Group-2 was abundant and widely distributed in all transects. On the whole, foraminiferal diversity and densities were high at the middle and upper marsh areas (constituted by Group-2 species) compared to low marsh or water-edge location. The species-environment relationship (Canonical Correspondence Analysis - CCA) explained up to 72% variance (eigenvalue, 0.65) between species and the soil parameters tested (i.e., sediment texture – sand, silt and clay, total organic carbon - TOC, pH and salinity). While majority of those environmental variables have shown positive correlation with faunal abundance, soil salinity and clay were found significant (P < 0.002) in controlling their distribution locally at Kapar.

Keywords: Benthic Foraminifera, Kapar Mangrove, Malaysia, Sediment, Species-Environment Relationship

The International Journal of Environmental, Cultural, Economic and Social Sustainability, Volume 4, Issue 2, pp.27-36. Article: Print (Spiral Bound). Article: Electronic (PDF File; 1.365MB).

Mohd-Lokman Husain

Dean, Research and Innovation, Institute of Oceanography (INOS), University Malaysia Terengganu(UMT), Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia

Dr. Mohd-Lokman Husain obtained his PhD from the University of Hull, England in Coastal Geomorphology. He also holds M.Sc. in Coastal Zone Management from Florida Tech., U.S.A, and B.Sc. (Summa Cum Laude) from Mississippi State University, U.S.A. He is a founding member of the Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, Mangrove Research and Conservation Unit (MARU) and has trekked into various Malaysian mangroves in the name of research since 1993. He has obtained several grants from national and international bodies to conduct research on different aspects of mangroves. He has published his research findings widely in the national and international journals and has more than 50 publications relating to processes within the coastal and intertidal ecosystems. Currently, he is focusing on wave attenuation abilities of selected Malaysian mangrove vegetation under the aegis of Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (MOSTI), Malaysia.

Satyanarayana Behara

Lecturer/Research Fellow, Institute of Oceanography (INOS), University Malaysia Terengganu, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia

Behara Satyanarayana (born on 18 August 1972) obtained his Ph.D. degree from the Marine Biological Laboratory, Andhra University, India (March 2005) for the research work on “Ecobiology and Remote Sensing based study of Coringa mangroves in the Godavari Delta, East coast of India”. He started his career with the aid of European Commission (EC) and the Department of Ocean Development (DOD, India) projects on Coringa for more than 7 years (1994-2002). Later he was nominated for the Senior Scholar Fellowship (2002-2003) under “Indo-China Cultural Exchange Program” by the Govt. of India, and worked for Nanjing University, China. Subsequently, he joined the Chinese Academy of Sciences as a Post-Doctoral Researcher (2004–2006) at the South China Sea Institute of Oceanology. Together with mangrove ecosystem/assessment studies, his professional experience also includes coastal and offshore productivity in the Asian waters using satellite remote sensing. At every step, the works furnished by Dr. Satya continues to recognize through several scientific awards and scholarships with a number of publications in the peer-reviewed journals. He also paid visits to Vrije Universiteit Brussels (Belgium) and University of Ruhuna (Sri Lanka) as a Visiting Scholar to accomplish several research assignments. At present, he is working as Lecturer/Research Fellow at the Institute of Oceanography (INOS), University Malaysia Terengganu (UMT), Malaysia (July 2006 - present).

Razarudin Ibrahim

University Malaysia Terengganu, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia

Sulong Ibrahim

Lecturer, Institute of Oceanography (INOS), University Malaysia Terengganu, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia

Sulong Ibrahim (born in 1949) obtained his Bachelors degree in Forestry from the Lousiana State University (USA) in 1973, and continued his Masters at the University of Missouri – Columbia. After his post-graduation (1975), he started working as a Lecturer at the Universiti Pertanian Malaysia (UPM) (1975 to 1996). At the same time, he also served as the Head for Forest Production, and the Dean of Forestry Faculty. His expertise in various fields includes mangrove ecology and management, remote sensing and GIS. He is interested on the ecological and environmental issues in both natural and replanted mangrove habitats for their better monitoring and management. He is an active member of the International Society of Mangrove Ecosystem (ISME), Mangrove Management Committee of Pahang, Terengganu and Kelantan, and for the Committee of National Mangrove Replanting Program. He has published several research papers in peer-reviewed journals, and also author for “Mangroves of Terengganu”, a book jointly published by University Malaysia Terengganu (UMT) and the Forestry Department of Peninsular Malaysia. He is currently working as Associate Professor at the Institute of Oceanography (INOS), UMT.

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