Integrated Planning and Managing of Natural Areas for Integrated Tourism Planning
Tourism creates a tension between the desire for economic development and the need to maintain or even enhance the resource base that sustains visitors in the first place. In New Zealand, natural areas form an important part of the tourism resource base. This paper provides an overview of a research approach and end product (a knowledge basket or “kete”) for a planning and management approach to sustainable management of natural areas for tourism activities in New Zealand. This integrated approach takes account of social, cultural, environmental and economic planning and management considerations. The kete being developed is web-based and structured around a six-component framework that incorporates a wide range of concepts and management tools and demonstrates the linkages between them. The six components (i) inform the recognition and setting of limits to tourism growth and activity, (ii) structure public participation, including Maori participation, (iii) are used to assess the social, biophysical and cumulative impacts of tourism, (iv) assist with the valuation and allocation of the natural resources that tourism is based on, (v) make up the legislative and planning context through natural resource, land-use and tourism plans, and (vi) provide visitor information and marketing to attract and direct visitors to an area, modify their behaviour when they get there, and enhance their experience. Together, the tools provide the basis for building community, industry and agency capacity to manage natural areas in an integrated and more sustainable way for tourism and related activities.
||Integrated, Sustainable Management, Natural Areas, Tourism, Economic, Environmental, Social, Cultural
The International Journal of Environmental, Cultural, Economic and Social Sustainability, Volume 3, Issue 5, pp.167-178.
Article: Print (Spiral Bound).
Article: Electronic (PDF File; 576.862KB).
Director, Centre for Research, Evaluation and Social Assessment (CRESA), Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand
Julie Warren is a founding Director of the Centre for Research, Evaluation and Social Assessment. She has worked in impact assessment, research and evaluation for 20 years, research areas including the social implications of conservation policies and practice, resource management, tourism and recreational planning and management, regional and local economic development and planning. As well as working with local and central government agencies, communities and the occasional private organisation, Julie’s work includes management of, and participation in, a range of long-term research programmes funded by New Zealands’ Foundation for Research, Science and Technology.
Director, Taylor Baines and Associates (TBA), Christchurch, Christchurch, New Zealand
Nick has worked in the field of impact assessment for 27 years. In 1989 he started the consultancy Taylor-Baines and Associates and previously was a senior researcher at the Centre for Resource Management, Lincoln University. With his background in applied sociology and environmental sciences, he was involved since the early 1980s in developing approaches and techniques for social assessment. The third edition of Social Assessment: theory, process and techniques was published in 2004. He has supported capacity building in impact assessment and conducted training courses and workshops in social assessment both in New Zealand and internationally.
He has undertaken numerous contracts conducting social research and assessments for the public and private sectors, and community groups, including overseas development projects. His research and consultancy has specialised in assisting communities to increase their viability and sustainability, and includes work in the tourism, agriculture, forestry, fishing, energy and mining sectors. He has worked on infrastructural projects such as harbours, highways and landfills, and developments such as casinos, and shopping malls. He has also been involved in assessments of community needs, and planning and evaluation of social service delivery, including health services and delivery of services to small and isolated communities.
Principal Analyst, Taylor Baines and Associates (TBA), Christchurch, Christchurch, New Zealand
Janet Gough is a principal analyst with ERMA New Zealand and consultant with Taylor Baines and Associates (TBA). Her academic qualifications are in mathematics and quantitative economics, and she has 20 years experience as a resource manager with particular expertise in the areas of environmental decision making and risk analysis, including risk assessment, risk management, perceived and acceptable risk, and risk communication. Her interests in tourism research stem from twin themes of non market valuation applied to environmental and social impacts, and risk communication. At ERMA New Zealand Janet is primarily responsible for developing and maintaining the organisation’s expertise in environmental risk management and promoting the agency as a leader in this area. As a researcher/consultant Janet is currently involved in evaluating tools for managing tourism in natural areas, developing risk management training programmes and analysing risk management frameworks from new technologies. She is a member of the Standards Australia and Standards Association of New Zealand risk management committee and Chair of the environmental committee; a member of the Australian and New Zealand Chapter of the SRA; and convenor of the NZSRM environmental (risk) special interest group.
Independent Environmental Consultant, Blaschke & Rutherford, Wellington, New Zealand
Paul Blaschke is an independent environmental consultant working for central and local government, research providers, and private clients throughout New Zealand. An ecologist by training, he has an in-depth knowledge of sustainable land management issues in many districts, with a particular interest in the potential for tourism as a means of facilitating sustainable development and nature conservation in production environments. When working for the Parliamentary Commissioner for the Environment he led a major investigation into the management of environmental effects associated with the tourism sector in New Zealand (1997). The investigation was widely acknowledged as a significant catalyst for increased public investment into tourism information and research requirements and the development of the New Zealand Tourism Strategy. More recently Paul has been a key member of the Foundation for Research, Science and Technology funded programme on integrated approaches to planning and management of tourism in natural areas. In this project he has worked on a number of case studies throughout New Zealand including detailed investigation of issues facing concession holders and nature-based tourism operators. He has also worked for the Department of Conservation in developing framework policy on tourism and recreation management.
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