The state of the physical sustainability of any residential development is influenced by its spatial organization. The design most suited for the infrastructure systems which serve a particular development in turn would depend on the number of dwelling units in a settlement and the number of occupants in each dwelling unit. Infrastructure development could either be a new installation or an addition to an existing system, and the best option for either case would be quite different. This paper evaluates the extent to which the spatial characteristics of residential developments determine the kind of infrastructure system that can be employed based on water supply for a series of urban settlements with varying residential densities, in Auckland, New Zealand. The true cost of water supply systems is assessed using a life cycle approach, which incorporates not only the initial construction but also maintenance, replacement and final demolition of systems over the useful life. Residential density/settlement patterns with the least environmental impact for mains water supply are identified in terms of life cycle energy and carbon dioxide emissions by detailed analysis of various land use patterns and the existing mains water supply system in Auckland.
|Keywords:||Life Cycle Analysis, Life Cycle Energy, Embodied Energy, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Water Supply Systems, Residential Density, Spatial Organisation, Reticulated Supply|
Research Fellow, Centre for Urban Ecosystem Sustainability, Landcare Research, Auckland, New Zealand
Senior Researcher, Centre for Urban Ecosystem Sustainability, Landcare Research, Auckland, New Zealand
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