This research introduces a methodology to design thermally comfortable outdoor spaces by studying the thermal conditions in a courtyard (sahn) of an existing mosque located in the hot arid region of Phoenix, Arizona, and attempts to modify those conditions through a design that integrates passive strategies to achieve human thermal comfort. Such an approach will increase the opportunity to use the outdoor space more often and decrease the demand on the indoor space that utilizes conventional mechanical systems to adjust thermal levels, thus conserving energy.
Thermal conditions on a summer day at selected locations in the mosque sahn were calculated for the Muslim five daily prayers using the thermal level simulation software OUTDOOR©. This program calculates the predicted mean vote (PMV), which is the approach used to anticipate the thermal sensation for a group of people on a scale between -5 (intolerable cool) and +5 (intolerable heat). In addition, this tool measures the corrected effective temperature (CET) that adds the impact of the direct short wave solar radiation from the sun and the indirect long wave radiation emitted from the surfaces surrounding our bodies to that of the ambient temperature. Results indicated that thermal levels require adjustment mainly during the two daytime prayers.
After applying the design to the space, the modified PMV was calculated and compared with that of the existing conditions. As a conclusion, adaptive strategies are required to adjust and protect the space thermal conditions during daytime prayers while exposing the space to ambient conditions during night time prayers.
|Keywords:||Human Thermal Comfort, Passive Strategies, Outdoor Spaces, Predicted Mean Vote, Corrected Effective Temperature, Adaptive Shade, Natural Downdraft Evaporative Cooler (Cool Tower)|
Graduate Student, College of Architecture and Landscape Architecture, University of Arizona, Tucson, USA
University of Arizona, USA